Uncommon disperser in spring, summer and autumn. Bred on some of Kuwait’s islets in the past (1949). The population of this species has declined, its global range is restricted mainly to Arabia and Socotra.
Where in Kuwait
Usually seen in small numbers, usually in the south of Kuwait mainly during the summer months.
In the world
This species has two sub-populations. The northern one breeds on islands off the Persian Gulf coasts of Bahrain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Qatar and possibly Iran (breeding not confirmed since 1972). The southern sub-population is apparently much smaller and breeds on one or more islands off the Arabian Sea coast of Oman and in the Gulf of Aden off Yemen. The Gulf of Salwa in Saudi Arabia holds the highest breeding concentration of this species today, representing over half the world population. This species is highly gregarious, occurring throughout the year in large aggregations. Roosts are tightly packed, occupying the smallest possible ground footprint, potentially to maximize shade to the feet.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small range, which is suspected to be undergoing a continuous and rapid decline, largely because of infrastructure and residential development, disturbance at its nesting colonies, exploitation, and marine oil pollution. As a piscivore the species is susceptible to other marine pollutants such as heavy metals and PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), as well as neurotoxins.