Ruff (Female spring)
Ruff (Male)
Scientific Name 
Philomachus pugnax
Arabic Name 
النفاش المشاكس
Kuwaiti name 
56.0 cm
28.0 cm
Least Concern


Uncommon passage migrant, rare winter and summer visitor. Up to 154 in late April 2006.
Where in Kuwait 
Often recorded in open agricultural land but also on coastal fresh wetlands and inland pools in the Jahra Area
In the world 
It has an extremely large range with a decreasing population and is fully migratory and travels on a broad front across Europe. It migrates in large flocks of hundreds or thousands of individuals and forms huge dense groups on its wintering grounds. This species shows marked sexual dimorphism; the male is much larger than the female (the reeve). The current name was first recorded in 1634, and is derived from the ruff, an exaggerated collar fashionable from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century, since the male bird's neck ornamental feathers resemble the neck-wear. The male plays no part in nesting or chick care
Local threats 
Habitat loss and degradation and oil pollution